Companion Planting Table

Companion planting is not a new idea to the gardening world. There is evidence of farmers using these same techniques dating back to ancient Roman times. Many people are familiar with the idea of planting the “Three Sisters,” a Native American technique that combines corn, squash, and beans. These are time-tested planting methods that some dismiss as old wives tales. They would rather plant in organized, monoculture plots that tend to have the same appearance as different color cars parked in a mall parking lot.

By planting only one crop or separating crop by type, you are actually creating a situation that requires a dependence on pesticides or herbicides, organic or not. If you examine a wooded forest lot or a marsh that has not been infringed upon by humans, you will see an interrelated system that works in natural harmony within itself. There are bugs that feed the birds, small mammals that maintain a manageable level of ground growth, and larger mammals that manage the level of smaller ones; the system requires no external inputs. This is the type of environment that can be created in one’s garden space, making it harmonious for the birds and the bees, while providing a peaceful retreat for family and friends to enjoy.

A companion planting plan integrates Mother Nature’s traits as well as your choice of crops. Some underlying techniques in companion planting include: 


Plant Companion(s) and Effects
Asparagus Tomatoes, parsley, basil
Basil Tomatoes (improves growth & flavor); said to dislike rue; repels flies & mosquitoes
Bean Potatoes, carrots, cucumbers, cauliflower, cabbage, summer savory, most other veggies & herbs
Bean (bush)Sunflowers (beans like partial shade, unless you live up north, sunflowers attract birds & bees for pollination), cucumbers (combination of heavy and light feeders), potatoes, corn, celery, summer savory
Bee Balm Tomatoes (improves growth & flavor).
Beet Onions, kohlrabi
Borage Tomatoes (attracts bees, deters tomato worm, improves growth & flavor), squash, strawberries
Cabbage Family (broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi) Potatoes, celery, dill, chamomile, sage, thyme, mint, pennyroyal, rosemary, lavender, beets, onions; aromatic plants deter cabbage worms
Caraway Loosens soil; plant here and there
Carrot Peas, lettuce, chives, onions, leeks, rosemary, sage, tomatoes
Catnip Plant in borders; protects against flea beetles
Celery Leeks, tomatoes, bush beans, cauliflower, cabbage
Chamomile Cabbage, onions
Chervil Radishes (improves growth & flavor).
Chive Carrots; plant around base of fruit trees to discourage insects from climbing trunk
Corn Potatoes, peas, beans, cucumbers, pumpkin, squash
Cucumber Beans, corn, peas, radishes, sunflowers
Dead Nettle Potatoes (deters potato bugs)
Dill Cabbage (improves growth & health), carrots
Eggplant Beans
Fennel Most plants are supposed to dislike it.
Flax Carrots, potatoes
Garlic Roses & raspberries (deters Japanese beetle); with herbs to enhance their production of essential oils; plant liberally throughout garden to deter pests
Horseradish Potatoes (deters potato beetle); around plum trees to discourage curculios
Hyssop Cabbage (deters cabbage moths), grapes; keep away from radishes
Lamb’s Quarters Nutritious edible weeds; allow to grow in modest amounts in the corn
Leek Onions, celery, carrots
Lemon Balm Here and there in the garden
Marigold The workhorse of pest deterrents; keeps soil free of nematodes; discourages many insects; plant freely throughout the garden.
Marjoram Here and there in the garden
Mint Cabbage family; tomatoes; deters cabbage moth
Nasturtium Tomatoes, radish, cabbage, cucumbers; plant under fruit trees; deters aphids & pests of curcurbits
Onion Beets, strawberries, tomato, lettuce (protects against slugs), beans (protects against ants), summer savory
Parsley Tomato, asparagus
Pea Squash (when squash follows peas up trellis), plus grows well with almost any vegetable; adds nitrogen to the soil
Petunia Protects beans; beneficial throughout garden
Potato Horseradish, beans, corn, cabbage, marigold, limas, eggplant (as a trap crop for potato beetle)
Pot Marigold Helps tomato, but plant throughout garden as deterrent to asparagus beetle, tomato worm & many other garden pests
Pumpkin Corn
Radish Peas, nasturtium, lettuce, cucumbers; a general aid in repelling insects
Rosemary Carrots, beans, cabbage, sage; deters cabbage moth, bean beetles & carrot fly
Rue Roses & raspberries; deters Japanese beetle; keep away from basil
Sage Rosemary, carrots, cabbage, peas, beans; deters some insects
Soybean Grows with anything; helps everything
Spinach Strawberries
Squash Nasturtium, corn
Strawberry Bush beans, spinach, borage, lettuce (as a border)
Summer Savory Beans, onions; deters bean beetles
Sunflower Cucumber
Tansy Plant under fruit trees; deters pests of roses & raspberries; deters flying insects, also Japanese beetles, striped cucumber beetles, squash bugs; deters ants
Tarragon Good throughout garden
Thyme Here and there in garden; deters cabbage worm
Tomato Chives, onion, parsley, asparagus, marigold, nasturtium, carrot, limas
Valerian Good anywhere in garden
Wormwood As a border, keeps animals from the garden
Yarrow Plant along borders, near paths, near aromatic herbs; enhances essential oil production of herbs